Guidance

RESOURCES TO HELP SHAPE YOUR FINANCIAL FUTURE

Even newbie investors are probably somewhat knowledgeable about the importance of investing heavily in tax-sheltered vehicles: IRAs and company-sponsored retirement plans. Taking advantage of tax-deferred compounding—or even tax-free compounding, in the case of Roth vehicles—is one of the easiest ways for investors to improve their bottom lines.

Yet as meaningful as those tax savings can be, there are also situations when saving in your taxable account is the right way to go because practical considerations outweigh the tax hit you will take to do so. Here are some of the key occasions when saving within the confines of a taxable account makes sense, even though it could cost you a bit more in taxes from year to year.

You May Need the Money Soon
If there is a realistic chance you will need part of your savings in the near future—for example, you are saving for a goal that is close at hand or you are building an emergency fund—you are usually better off saving in a taxable account than you are within the confines of a tax-sheltered vehicle such as an IRA, a 401(k), or a college-savings vehicle such as a 529 college-saving plan. The key reason is that if it turns out you need to tap the tax-sheltered assets prior to college or retirement, you will have to pay penalties and/or taxes to get your mitts on those assets. (Roth IRA contributions are the notable exception—see below for details.)

Taxable accounts carry no such strictures, though you will have to pay taxes on an annual basis on any investment earnings from those assets. it is also worth noting that the tax costs, in absolute terms, of holding short-term assets in your taxable accounts are apt to be quite low right now—one small silver lining of the current, low-yield environment. (Sadly, the tax costs in relative terms—as a percentage of your return—are still very high.)

You Are Multitasking
Sure, in an ideal world you would save for each of your specific financial goals in exactly the right bucket—retirement savings in your company retirement plan and IRA, college savings in a 529, and near-term goals in your taxable accounts.

Here in the real world, though, it can be hard to know which of those goals should take precedence. Maybe your child will get a scholarship, thereby obviating the need for her college fund. Or perhaps you will need to buy a new roof with some of the money you had earmarked for retirement. If you have competing financial priorities—or even competing financial “maybes”—you might be better off saving within a taxable account rather than tying the money up in a retirement- or college-specific investment.

If you are multitasking with your investments, however, first check to see whether you are eligible to contribute to a Roth IRA before assuming that a taxable account is the best, most flexible receptacle for your savings. The Roth is geared toward retirement, but you can withdraw your contributions at any time for any reason without taxes or penalties. If you do not end up needing the money prior to retirement, you will be able to enjoy tax-free withdrawals after age 59 1/2. That makes it a good first stop—even before cash—for multitaskers.

You Have Maxed Out Your Tax-Sheltered Options
One of the key reasons for saving in a taxable account is purely logistical. If you are a higher-income earner who is in a position to sock a lot away for retirement, you are apt to find that your tax-sheltered options will only take you so far. Investors in 401(k) plans are limited to $18,000 in annual contributions if they are under 50 and $24,000 if they are over 50. IRA investors can contribute $5,500 a year if they are under 50 and $6,500 if they are over 50. (College savers are not likely to hit this roadblock, as 529 contribution limits, while varying by state, are extremely generous.) If you find yourself in the position of having maxed out all of the tax-sheltered retirement vehicles available to you, saving additional assets in a taxable account will be a necessity. The good news is that if your retirement is many years away, your retirement savings are likely to be skewed toward stocks, which carry lower tax costs than bonds.

You Are Seeking Tax Diversification
Yet another reason to save in a taxable account is you are looking for flexibility in your retirement withdrawals. Assets held in Traditional 401(k)s and IRAs grow on a tax-deferred basis but are taxed at your ordinary income tax rate when you begin pulling money out in retirement. By also holding assets in Roth accounts, which offer tax-free withdrawals, as well as taxable accounts, from which withdrawals may qualify for lower capital gains treatment, you may be able to keep yourself in a lower tax bracket during retirement. Tax diversification, just like diversification among multiple asset classes, is a valuable aim when planning your portfolio.

Now What?
While taxable investors will forgo some of the tax breaks associated with tax-sheltered investments, it is still possible to minimize the tax hit. For higher-income investors saving for short- and intermediate-term goals, municipal bonds and bond funds can make a compelling alternative to taxable bonds. Longer-term taxable investors have even more options, as stocks tend to be much more tax-friendly than bonds. Individual stocks, tax-managed mutual funds, and broad stock market index funds and ETFs tend to do a good job limiting the tax collector’s cut of your returns.

 

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